Analysis of Lead Toxicity on Characteristics of Germination, Embryonic Growth, Biochemical and Oxidative Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes

Authors

  • Muhammad Imran Atta Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Syeda Sadaf Zahra Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Khuram Afzal Department of Food Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Naveed Abbas Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Shahid Hassan Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Sadia Sarwar Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Mumtaz Hussain Department of Veterinary Scineces, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Waseem Ahmad Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Keywords:

Heavy Metals, Germination, Vigor Index, ROS, Proline, Protein, Carbohydrates Mobilization

Abstract

Heavy metals are phytotoxic substances and are continuously being added to the environment through anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the phytotoxicity of lead (Pb) metals on different attributes of five different maize varieties (Pak Afgoi, Sadaf, Agiti, Hybrid-1898, and Neelem Desi). Pb induced clear suppressive trends for seed germination, embryonic growth, vigor index, dry weight biomass, and biochemical parameters (nitrogen, protein contents, carbohydrate mobilization, total sugar contents). Though, endogenic proline level was observed to be cumulative with the elevated metal doses. Data presented that proline accumulation in the freshly germinated seedlings instigated the seedling viability even under degradation of metabolic processes.  The effect of Pb on protein contents was less in Hybrid-1898 (18.3%) and Pak-Afgoi (19%), and highest in Neelem (26.1%). Carbohydrate mobilization and total sugar contents decreased along with increasing concentrations of metals. However, Hybrid-1898 and Pak-Afgoi showed an improved carbohydrate mobilization rate than other maize varieties. Metal oxidative stress (accumulationof H2O2 and MDA content) also caused oxidative damage due to metal toxicity. Overall, results have indicated a very severe impact of Pb on maize varieties. Based on tolerance, using vigor index data maize variety Afgoi was found to be more metal tolerant whereas, Neelem found to be a sensitive variety.

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Published

2023-10-03

How to Cite

Muhammad Imran Atta, Syeda Sadaf Zahra, Muhammad Khuram Afzal, Naveed Abbas, Muhammad Shahid Hassan, Sadia Sarwar, Mumtaz Hussain, & Waseem Ahmad. (2023). Analysis of Lead Toxicity on Characteristics of Germination, Embryonic Growth, Biochemical and Oxidative Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes . GU Journal of Phytosciences, 3(4), 240–246. Retrieved from http://jphytosci.com/index.php/GUJP/article/view/159