GU Journal of Phytosciences <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>GU Journal of Phytosciences (GUJP) is a peer-reviewed open-access journal that is published quarterly by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Ghazi University</strong></a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>GUBS Publishers</strong></a>. It is publishing authentic research in the form of original research articles and reviews in Plant, Biological, Environmental, and Agricultural Sciences. The GU Journal of Phytosciences is recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan in "Y" Category and will be included in well-reported indexing very soon. <span class="fontstyle0">GU Journal of Phytosciences publishes original research papers and quality review papers of biological, agricultural, and environmental sciences in the aspects of plant sciences. GU Journal of Phytosciences is a quarterly journal. In a year, 4 issues are published in the month of January, April, July, and October. A paper would normally require at least two months from the date of receipt for its appearance in the journal.</span></p> <p><strong>Aim and scope</strong></p> <p>GU Journal of Phytosciences (GUJP) is a peer-reviewed, plant sciences journal and abstracted/ indexed in different organizations. The journal has published selected original research articles and reviews in the field of plants sciences in relation to Agriculture, Biological and Environmental Sciences with the aspects of plants. The journal's scope is therefore necessarily broad to cover recent discoveries in plant sciences at the interface of related disciplines. The main objective of the journal is to bring the latest developments in the field of plant sciences to professional and academic researchers. Associate Editors and members of international and national Advisory boards are eminent researchers in their respective fields and sub fields of plant sciences.</p> en-US <p>All works published by the <strong>GU Journal of Phytosciences</strong> are freely available to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work provided the original work and source are appropriately cited under a <strong>CC BY-NC 4.0 International License</strong>. The CC BY-NC licence allows for maximum re-use of open-access materials, and the author has full copyright over their publication. Under this license, users are free to share (copy, distribute, and transmit) and adapt for any purpose, but not for any commercial use (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">read full legal code</a>).</p> <p>Under Creative Commons, authors retain copyright in their articles.</p> (Dr. Faisal Hussain Leghari) (Usama Ahmad Khan) Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Analysis of Lead Toxicity on Characteristics of Germination, Embryonic Growth, Biochemical and Oxidative Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes <p>Heavy metals are phytotoxic substances and are continuously being added to the environment through anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the phytotoxicity of lead (Pb) metals on different attributes of five different maize varieties (Pak Afgoi, Sadaf, Agiti, Hybrid-1898, and Neelem Desi). Pb induced clear suppressive trends for seed germination, embryonic growth, vigor index, dry weight biomass, and biochemical parameters (nitrogen, protein contents, carbohydrate mobilization, total sugar contents). Though, endogenic proline level was observed to be cumulative with the elevated metal doses. Data presented that proline accumulation in the freshly germinated seedlings instigated the seedling viability even under degradation of metabolic processes.&nbsp; The effect of Pb on protein contents was less in Hybrid-1898 (18.3%) and Pak-Afgoi (19%), and highest in Neelem (26.1%). Carbohydrate mobilization and total sugar contents decreased along with increasing concentrations of metals. However, Hybrid-1898 and Pak-Afgoi showed an improved carbohydrate mobilization rate than other maize varieties. Metal oxidative stress (accumulationof H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and MDA content) also caused oxidative damage due to metal toxicity. Overall, results have indicated a very severe impact of Pb on maize varieties. Based on tolerance, using vigor index data maize variety Afgoi was found to be more metal tolerant whereas, Neelem found to be a sensitive variety.</p> Muhammad Imran Atta, Syeda Sadaf Zahra, Muhammad Khuram Afzal, Naveed Abbas, Muhammad Shahid Hassan, Sadia Sarwar, Mumtaz Hussain, Waseem Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 The Author Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Microscopic Authentication of Weeds of Rice Fields Collected from Adjoining Areas of District Kasur <p>Weeds are unwanted plants but in other context also used for medicinal purposes in various localities but the problem of admixturing and adulteration of these medicinal plants is directly proportional to the increasing demand of herbal medicinal products. In this study six weed species which are medicinally important were collected form rice fields i.e., <em>Cyperus conglomeratus</em> <em>Hochst</em>., <em>Cyperus difformis Blanco</em>., <em>Paspalidium flavidum A. Camus</em>., <em>Juncellus pygmaeus C.B. Clarke</em>., <em>Alternanthera sessilus R.Br</em>. and <em>Eclipta alba Hassk</em>. The macroscopic, microscopic, florescence analysis and ash values were determined. Eclipta alba showed the highest water insoluble ash and acid insoluble ash of 21.4%w/w and 5.1%w/w respectively. <em>Cyperus difformis</em> showed the highest value of sulphated ash value of 5.3%w/w. These observations are set for the comparison of structures and level of adulterants can be found out by comparing. From this research work it can be suggested that these methods are quite significant, useful and cheap for the correct identification and determination of authenticity and purity of medicinal plants in pharmaceutical companies.</p> Narmeen Zafar, Uzma Hanif, Romana Aziz, Adeel Mustafa, Asma Asghar Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Organic Amendments Impacts on Quality Traits in Some Cultivar of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) <p>The experiment was conducted to assess the capability of wheat genotypes as influenced by different organic sources upon quality traits, Falling Number (s), 1000-grain mass (g), Grain moisture (%), Wet gluten (%), dry gluten (%) and gluten. It was investigated that Several factors might have influenced however, mobilization of nutrient within soil regime and translocation into plant system reflect enhanced nutrient use efficiency upon addition of FYM (10 tons ha-1) followed by Sesbania (15 tons ha-1) and cluster bean (9 tons ha-1) on dry weight basis. Increase in 1000-grain mass upon addition of sesbania and FYM over Inorganic NPK fertilizer and cluster bean are reflective of conducive soil regime, healthy plant growth and rationale transport of nutrients at different stages, plumule emergence to grain filling throughout harvest season. Improved N-use efficiency and uptake within grain was the reason of increased wet gluten, dry gluten and gluten index. Findings of the trial suggested that varied response varieties to quality traits was due to genetic inheritance. Wheat grain productivity and quality may be improved significantly with application of organic manures alone or in integration of chemical fertilizers to retain sustainable, eco-friendly agriculture.</p> Shazia Pathan, Rabia Asma Memon, Saeed Akhtar Abro, Nizamuddin Depar, Muhammad Abbas Bhutto, Faiza Anwar, Uzma Sitara, Riaz Uddin, Abdul Ahad Kolachi Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing Yield and Quality Attributes of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Through Sulfur Application <p>Sulfur is an essential nutrient for achieving profitable crop production as it plays a crucial role in chlorophyll formation and protein synthesis. It also contributes to the composition of chemical substances and enhances seed oil content. This study was conducted during the winter season of 2018-19 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and the impact of sulfur on seed yield and oil content of canola was investigated. The treatments consisted of four levels (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg ha-1) and three sources (single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate, and gypsum) of sulfur. The experiment followed a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with a split plot arrangement, and the data were analyzed using Fisher's analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a significance level of p≤ 0.05. The means of the treatments were compared using Tukey's HSD test at a 5% probability level. Results showed that the application of sulfur in the form of ammonium sulfate at 30 kg ha-1 had a significant impact on the growth, yield, and quality of canola. The highest values for plant height (165 cm), number of branches (18), number of siliqua (291), 1000 seed weight (5.8 g), seed yield (2299 kg ha-1), biological yield (8368.0 kg ha-1), protein content (13.7%), and oil content (37.5%) were observed ammonium sulfate treatment at 30 kg ha-1. It is concluded that ammonium sulfate emerged as the most effective sulfur source, significantly enhancing the yield characteristics and quality traits of winter canola followed by single super phosphate and gypsum. While, the protein and oil contents, as well as grain yield, showed a progressive increase by increasing concentration level of sulfur source.</p> Tayyab Nawaz, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid, Esha Mehik Fatima, Khubaib Nawaz, Heer Baloch, Muhammad Abdullah Saleem, Sabina Asghar, Abdul Shakoor, Saqlan Raza, Muhammad Sohail Saddiq Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Economically Most Efficient Doses of NPK for Fine Rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Punjab, Pakistan <p>Sustainable rice production largely depends on addition of sizable quantity of fertilizer nutrients since most of soils, particularly alkaline calcareous soils are deficient in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) due to extensive mining nutrients by high-yielding crop varieties. Being an essential staple food, the application of balanced nutrients (NPK) is vital to harvest the realistic agronomic potential of rice crop. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the agronomically and economically optimal dose of NPK to produce the economic yield of fine rice in prominent rice-growing divisions, viz., Lahore and Gujranwala. The study was conducted at 41 sites of these two Divisions from 2016 to 2021. In brief, N doses 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg ha-1, P2O5 doses 0, 45, 90, and 135 kg ha-1, and K2O doses 0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 were used as treatments to find appropriate balanced doses of NPK. Finally, 11 treatments containing various combinations were constituted following the central rotatory design keeping 135-90-60 kg ha-1 as a central treatment. The experimental results indicated that the maximum paddy yield (5459 kg ha-1) was obtained with NPK doses of 135, 90, and 120 kg ha-1. However, when analysed on the basis of benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and marginal rate of return (MRR), the higher levels of NPK from the central treatment were found uneconomical. On the basis of BCR and MRR, the dose containing NPK @ 135, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 was found as the most economical dose. The outcomes of this study could be used as a benchmark by the researchers and the farmers to adapt this dose as recommendations for fine varieties of rice in Punjab Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Samina Hamid, Hafiz Riaz Ahmad, Abdul Waheed, Sarosh Alvi, Muhmmad Shakir, Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Compensating Effect of Acidified Biochar (AB) on Plant Grown Under Lead and Salt Stress <p>The presence of heavy metals and salinity poses a significant threat to global food security, making it a pressing challenge. Throughout various stages of their lifecycle, plants suffer from the detrimental effects of salinity and lead poisoning in multiple ways. These stressors disrupt the plants' water and nutrient relationships and subject them to oxidative stress. Additionally, salinity and lead induce transmembrane damage, affect stomatal functioning, and alter enzymatic activity through the induction of ABA. Scientists have observed that the photosynthetic apparatus undergoes structural changes due to salinity and lead, leading to reduced chlorophyll pigment production and consequently slower carbon absorption. Although researchers have attempted various costly and somewhat effective techniques to mitigate the impact of lead and salt stress. The utilization of activated acidified biochar has emerged as a potential game-changer. In recent years, activated biochar has gained popularity as a soil amendment due to its ability to release essential nutrients while effectively trapping lead in the soil. It serves as an excellent method for enhancing soil fertility, preventing salt accumulation, immobilizing lead, and exhibiting superior positive ion exchange capabilities. Moreover, acidified biochar improves water and nutrient availability and fosters a more favorable ecology within the soil rhizosphere, ultimately enhancing nutrient cycling in the ecosystem. This comprehensive review emphasizes the remarkable potential of acidified biochar in mitigating the detrimental effects of salinity and lead poisoning on plant growth, yield, and the rhizosphere.</p> Azhar Sohail Shahzad, Laraib Sheikh, Uzma Younis, Muhammad Atif Ghafoor, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2023 The Authors Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000